Episode 13 - Part 1: First Ladies Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and Lady Bird Johnson

We are exploring in a three-episode series two First Ladies, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and Lady Bird Johnson, who made their marks in the 1960s and 70s. Warning: We will be discussing some matters in these three episodes that could be upsetting or inappropriate for children or individuals with triggers due to mentions of violence or inappropriate behavior in relationships.

These two First Ladies each had a significant affect on transportation and public spaces. Why even talk about other aspects of their lives in a podcast that focuses on public space and transportation? My answer is because plans, ideas, and whether they come to fruition often have as much to do with personality as with laws, politics, and societal attitudes. Who these prominent women were and how they were perceived greatly affected how their projects and conduct were accepted, embraced, or rejected. Tumultuous events and societal attitudes would affect their legacies.

In Part 1 (Episode 13), we’ll be comparing and contrasting Lady Bird's and Jackie's backgrounds and experiences in the public eye as they approach and become First Ladies. 
In Part 2 (Episode 14), we’ll be looking at Jackie’s involvement in preventing the destruction of the character of Lafayette Square in Washington, DC, and Lady Bird’s beautification/environmental efforts and her work in urban planning outside of tourist, official and wealthy Washington. That topic will continue into Part 3 (Episode 15) and we will then conclude the series with Jackie’s advocacy to save Grand Central Terminal/Station.

Sources for more information:
Please note that the newspaper articles are available for free through many public library systems. They are not all available otherwise on the Internet.
·      Sarah Shoenfeld, Mapping Segregation in DC, DC Policy Center (2019) – https://www.dcpolicycenter.org/publications/mapping-segregation-fha/#_ftnref8
·      Kevin Baker, 'Welcome to Fear City' – the inside story of New York's civil war, 40 years on, The Guardian (May 18, 2015)
·      Joe Heim, New Lafayette Square marker highlights role of slavery in building White House, Washington Post (July 28, 2021) – https://tudorplace.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/New-Lafayette-Square-marker-highlights-role-of-slavery-in-building-White-House_Washington-Post-07.28.21.pdf 
·      Joe Heim, The enslaved people who built and staffed the White House: An afterthought no more, Washington Post (Feb. 17, 2020) – https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/the-enslaved-people-who-built-and-staffed-the-white-house-an-afterthought-no-more/2020/02/17/5e5393ea-483c-11ea-8124-0ca81effcdfb_story.html 
·      Lina Mann, Building the White House, White House Historical Association (Jan. 3, 2020) – https://www.whitehousehistory.org/building-the-white-house 
·      Books in order of first ladies
o   Jaqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis: The Untold Story, Barbara Leaming (2014), is a full biography and argues that Jackie suffered for years after the assassination with post-traumatic stress disorder. 
o   A Woman Named Jackie, C. David Heymann (1989), a bit of a trashy biography, but it hits the high and low points.
o   Lady Bird: A Biography of Mrs. Johnson (1999), a full biography that concentrates on the Lady Bird’s childhood and marriage, and her place in her husband’s political career
o   Lady Bird Johnson: Hiding in Plain Sight, Julia Sweig (2021) focuses on Lady Bird’s time as first lady, specifically her role as political advisor and her activities as an environmentalist, urban planner, and women’s advocate during those years.) 
o   Lady Bird Johnson and the Environment, Lewis L. Gould (1988, 2021) (Chapter 6: A Pattern of Quality for Washington’s Neighborhoods, provides in-depth, scholarly coverage of the involved work of Lady Bird, her staff, and those she brought in as donors or staff for small and large-scale projects in black neighborhoods of Washington, DC.) – available at https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctv1p2gjzg 
·      Podcasts
o   History Chicks
§  Lady Bird Johnson – Episode 157 – http://thehistorychicks.com/episode-157-lady-bird-johnson/ 
§  In Plain Sight: Lady Bird Johnson – 10-part series – http://www.juliasweig.com/new-page-4 
§  Jaqueline Kennedy Onassis – Part One – Episode 101 – http://thehistorychicks.com/episode-101-jacqueline-bouvier-kennedy-onassis-part-one/ 
§  Jaqueline Kennedy Onassis – Part Two – Episode 102 – http://thehistorychicks.com/episode-101-jacqueline-kennedy-onassis-part-two/ 
o   Bowery Boys
§  The Rescue of Grand Central Terminal: Jackie and the Landmark Express Go to Washington - https://www.boweryboyshistory.com/2018/02/rescue-grand-central-terminal-jackie-landmark-express-go-washington.html  
·      Other sources
o   A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy 
§  Video of the entire television special – https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x74jyr0 
o   The Historic Preservation Legacy of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Kathleen P. Galop, Forum Journal & Forum Focus, National Trust for Historic Preservation Leadership Forum (Spring 2006) – https://forum.savingplaces.org/viewdocument/the-historic-preservation-legacy-of 
o   Lauren Elyse Garcia, When Eartha Kitt Disrupted the Ladies Who Lunch, The New Yorker (Feb. 16, 2022) –https://www.newyorker.com/culture/the-new-yorker-documentary/when-eartha-kitt-disrupted-the-ladies-who-lunch 
o   Lloyd Grove, Child of Fortune, Take 2, Washington Post (July 8, 1998) – https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/features/currier.htm 
o   Russell Roe, Lady Bird in Big Bend, Texas Parks & Wildlife (July 2016) – https://tpwmagazine.com/archive/2016/jul/LLL_ladybird/  
o   First Lady Lady Bird Johnson 1912-2007 Memorial Tributes in the One Hundred Tenth Congress of the United States, Government Printing Office (2008)
o   Kingman + Heritage Islands (Undated, but with up-to-date information) – https://www.kingmanisland.com/kingman-history and https://www.kingmanisland.com/the-future 
o   Clarence Williams, D.C. Neighborhood Struggles Against Culture of Violence, Wash. Post (Apr. 27, 2002) – https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/2002/04/27/dc-neighborhood-struggles-against-culture-of-violence/78cc20c1-31e6-41f1-8d0f-25f927482c6d/
o   Clyde Haberman, Looking Out on Grand Central, and Looking Back on Saving It, NYTimes (Jan. 27, 2013) – https://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/28/nyregion/kent-l-barwick-on-saving-grand-central-with-help-of-jacqueline-kennedy-onassis.html?searchResultPosition=1 (available for free through library card access)
o   Emily Nonko, How preservationists and Jackie O got the supreme court to save Grand Central Terminal in 1978, 6 sqft (June 21, 2018) – https://www.6sqft.com/how-preservationists-and-jackie-o-got-the-supreme-court-to-save-grand-central-terminal-in-1978/ 
o   Tina Cassidy, The Surprising Role Jackie Kennedy Onassis Played in Saving Grand Central, Bloomberg (Feb. 5, 2013) – https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-02-05/the-surprising-role-jackie-kennedy-onassis-played-in-saving-grand-central 
o   Rally Held for Grand Central to Be a Landmark Again, NYTimes (Apr. 16, 1975) – (available via ProQuest through a library card in many local library sysyems).
·      Further Afield
o   Black Lives Matter Plaza (near Lafayette Square) – https://washington.org/visit-dc/black-lives-matter-plaza 
o   Renwick Gallery of the Smithsonian American Art Museum – https://www.si.edu/museums/renwick-gallery 
o   David Finley, 1st Director of National Gallery, Dies, Jean R. Hailey, Washington Post (Feb. 2, 1977) – https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1977/02/02/david-finley-1st-director-of-national-gallery-dies/b44b3702-f9ef-4088-a224-4440a47c9a68/ (Mr. Finley’s interactions with Jackie Kennedy and preserving the historic character of Lafayette Square are not mentioned in the obituary.)
o   Andrew Giambrone, D.C.-born residents predominantly live on the eastern end of the city, analysis shows, Curbed Washington DC (Dec. 14, 2018) – https://dc.curbed.com/2018/12/14/18140721/dc-residents-native-washingtonians-anacostia-river-gentrification 
o   Laurie Mazur, Can a Park Prevent Gentrification? (op-ed), Next City (Feb. 10, 2021) – https://nextcity.org/urbanist-news/can-a-park-prevent-gentrification 
Episode 13 - Part 1: First Ladies Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and Lady Bird Johnson
Broadcast by